به دایره بزرگی که دور زمین تصور می کنیم و فاصله ی آن از قطب شمال و جنوب کره ی زمین یکسان است خط استوا می گوییم.
به دایره هایی که به موازای خط استوا بر روی کره زمین تصور می کنیم مدار می گوییم .
مدار استوا صفر درجه (مدار مبدا) در نظر گرفته شده و مدار ها در نیم کره شمالی و در نیم کره جنوبی بین 0تا 90 درجه تقسیم می شوند .
نصف النهار :
اگر در روی یک کره ی جغرافیایی ، خط های ،(نیم دایره هایی) از قطب شمال تا قطب جنوب ترسیم کنیم به این خطوط نصف النهار می گوییم .
نصف النهار مبدا ( گر ینویچ ، لندن ، مرکزی ) که از رصد خانه ی گرینویچ لندن عبور می کند به عنوان نصف النهار مبدا (صفر درجه ) در نظر گرفته شده است .
نصف النهار های نیم کره شرقی از صفر تا 180 درجه در شرق و نصف النهار ها ی نیم کره غربی بین صفر تا 180 درجه در غرب تغییر می کنند.
هر نقطه از زمین ، روی یک مدار و یک نصف النهار مشخص قرار دارد که به آن مختصات جغرافیایی آن نقطه می گویند .
نمایش حرکت انتقالی زمین
نوع مطلب :
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دوشنبه 17 فروردین 1394
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